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Arteriovenous Fistula

Last Updated: October 1, 2018

Overview

Arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) are direct pathologic arteriovenous shunts representing 10-15% of all cerebrovascular malformations with AV shunting. The prototypical AVF is an acquired lesion between transosseous-extracranial and/or meningeal arteries into the wall of a thrombosed dural venous sinus compromising a dural AVF (DAVF) and resulting in hypertensive venous congestion and venopathy, however pathologic arteriovenous fistulous connections may exist along any dural margin, sinus, or venous tributary.

DAVFs are distinguished from pial-parenchymal arteriovenous malformations by the predominance of dural arterial supply and the absence of a parenchymal nidus, however AVMs may have pial or dural fistulous components. The majority of DAVFs present in adulthood and are most comm...