Vols. Videos

Global Function

Last Updated: September 27, 2018

Table 1: Encephalopathy
Differential list for encephalopathy
Neoplastic
  • Pheochromocytoma
  • Leptomeningeal carcinomatosis
Infectious
  • Sepsis (DIC)
  • PML
  • HIV associated encephalopathy
  • Encephalitis
  • Meningitis
  • Cerebral malaria
Vascular
  • Malignant hypertension
  • Acute intracranial hypotension
  • Binswanger’s disease
  • Vasculitis
  • Ischemia
Endocrine
  • Hypoglycemia
  • Hyperosmolar nonketotic coma
  • Diabetic ketoacidosis
  • Thyrotoxicosis
  • Myxedema coma
  • Pituitary apoplexy
  • Cushing’s disease
  • Addison’s disease
Metabolic
  • Carbon dioxide narcosis
  • Hepatic encephalopathy
  • Uremia
  • Dehydration (electrolyte anomalies)
  • Porphyria
  • Maple syrup urine disease
  • Lactic acidosis
  • Hypovitaminosis B12
  • Hyponatremia
  • Hypernatremia
  • Hypercalcemia
Toxic
  • Ethanol
  • Wernicke’s encephalopathy
  • Opiates
  • Heroin
  • Amphetamines
  • Barbiturates
  • LSD
  • Phenothiazines
  • TCA
  • Digoxin
  • Anticholinergics
  • Methotrexate
  • Methanol
  • Paraldehyde
  • Cyanide
  • Heavy metals
  • Organophosphates
  • Steroids
Miscellaneous
  • Post-traumatic
  • Pugilistic encephalopathy
  • Post-radiation
  • Sturge-Weber syndrome (late)
  • Status epilepticus
Table 2: Unconscious Patient
Differential list for a patient found to be unconscious
Neoplastic
  • Primary
  • Metastatic
Vascular
  • Cardiogenic syncope (arrest, arrhythmia, outflow obstruction)
  • Hypovolemic shock
  • Anaphylactic shock
  • Infarction (arterial, venous)
  • Hypoxia
  • Anemia (CO, methemoglobin)
  • Cerebral edema
  • Hemorrhage (epidural, subdural, intracerebral, SAH)
  • Hyperviscosity
  • Vasculopathy (SLE)
Infectious
  • Meningitis
  • Encephalitis
  • CJD
  • DIC
  • Abscess
  • Subacute bacterial endocarditis
Endocrine
  • Hypoglycemia
  • Hyperosmolar nonketotic coma
  • Diabetic ketoacidosis
  • Thyrotoxicosis
  • Myxedema coma
  • Pituitary apoplexy
  • Cushing’s disease
  • Addison’s disease
Metabolic
  • Adrenoleukodystrophy
  • Carbon dioxide narcosis
  • Hepatic encephalopathy
  • Uremia
  • Porphyria
Toxic
  • Ethanol
  • Methanol
  • Opioids
  • Heroin
  • LSD
  • TCA and anticholinergics
  • Barbiturates
  • Amphetamines
  • Digoxin
  • Cyanide
  • Steroids
  • Organophosphates
Inflammatory
  • PML
Miscellaneous
  • Trauma
  • Epilepsy (post-ictal)
  • Conversion hysteria
  • Malingering
Table 3: Coma
Differential list for causes of coma
Neoplastic
  • Primary (progressive onset)
  • Metastatic (progressive onset)
  • Intralesional hemorrhage (acute onset)
Vascular
  • Infarction (ischemic, hemorrhagic)
  • Hemorrhage (subdural, epidural, intracerebral)
  • Hypertensive encephalopathy
Infectious
  • Abscess
  • Bacterial / Viral encephalitis or meningitis
Endocrine
  • Adrenal insufficiency
  • Hyperthyroidism / Hypothyroidism
Metabolic
  • Hypernatremia / Hyponatremia
  • Hyperglycemia / Hypoglycemia
  • Uremia
Toxic
  • Ethanol
  • Methanol
  • Opioids
  • Heroin
  • LSD
  • TCA and anticholinergics
  • Barbiturates
  • Amphetamines
  • Digoxin
  • Cyanide
  • Steroids
  • Organophosphates
Table 4: Coma-Like States
The syndromes mimicking a comatose state
Locked-In Syndrome
Akinetic Mutism
Apallic Syndrome
Persistent Vegetative State

DOI: https://doi.org/10.18791/nsatlas.v2.02.1.1

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