Last Updated: October 1, 2018
- Often associated with refractory epilepsy
- Histologically classified based on giant dysmorphic neurons with or without balloon cells
- Refractory epilepsy
Age and Gender
- No gender predilection. Usually manifests in the first 2 decades of life with seizures
- Thickening, blurring and sometimes hyperintensity of the cortex
- Abnormal signal may be seen to extend from the cortex to the ventricle with tapering as it approaches the lateral ventricle
- Usually normal
- Slightly hypointense
- Homogeneous T2 hyperintense comet-tail
- Typically non-enhancing
- MR with contrast
- Cortical dysplasia may mimic low grade glioma, depending on its location, size and configuration. Usually a triangular appearance with apex toward the ventricle is more characteristic of transmantle dysplasia. The cortical thickening and blurring of dysplasia may be much more difficult to distinguish from low grade tumor such as ganglioglioma.
For more information, please see the corresponding chapter in Radiopaedia.
Contributor: Sean Dodson, MD
Bronen RA, et al. Focal Cortical Dysplasia of Taylor, Balloon Cell Subtype: MR Differentiation from Low-Grade Tumors. AJNR. 1997; 18:1141-51.
Colombo N, et al. Focal Cortical Dysplasias: MR Imaging, Histopathologic, and Clinical Correlations in Surgically Treated Patients with Epilepsy. AJNR. 2003; 24:724-33.
Rastogi S, et al. Neuroimaging in Pediatric Epilepsy: A Multimodality Approach. Radiographics. 2008; 28:1079-95.
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