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Spinal Vascular Malformations

Last Updated: October 1, 2018


The spinal vascular malformations are in many ways analogous to their intracranial counterparts. Lesions characterized by high flow shunts include spinal arteriovenous fistulas (AVF) and spinal arteriovenous malformations (AVM). The most common classification scheme for spinal vascular malformations uses the Type 1 to 4 classification system, though other classification schema exist.

Type 1 lesions are dural AVFs in which a radiculomeningeal artery forms a fistulous communication with dural veins at the nerve root sleeve, and result in subsequent arterialization of the perimedullary venous plexus. Type 2 AVMs have an intramedullary nidus with variable anterior spinal artery (ASA) and/or posterior spinal artery contributions. Some authors treat conus medullaris AVMs as separate e...