Neuromyelitis Optica (NMO)
AKA Devic’s Disease, Devic’s Syndrome, Devic’s Neuromyelitis Optica, Neuromyelitis Optica and its Spectrum Disorder (NMOSD)
- Peak Age: 32-41
- Gender: F>M (5:1 to 10:1 F:M)
- Etiology: Autoimmune mediated demyelination specifically targeting areas of increased Aquaporin-4 expression (spinal cord, periaqueductal gray matter, periventricular white matter).
- Africans, East Asians, and Hispanic predomination.
- Oligoclonal bands: negative
- Protein: elevated
- Cell count: Pleocytosis (20-80%); monocytes, lymphocytes and/or neutrophils.
- Diagnostic Criteria:
- Complex and variable depending on result of IgG-AQP4 positivity.
- Briefly, the presence of a single core clinical characteristic (optic neuritis, acute myelitis, area postrema syndrome, acute brainstem syndrome, n...