Last Updated: February 4, 2019
The brainstem consists of the midbrain, pons, medulla, and superior, middle, and inferior cerebellar peduncles. It is separated from the cerebellum by the cerebellomesencephalic, cerebellopontine, and cerebellomedullary fissures.
The posterior circulation includes the relevant vascular pedicles for brainstem arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). The basilar artery serves as the major vascular supply for the brainstem, with three main branches that include the superior cerebellar artery (SCA), the anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA), and the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA).
The SCA is comprised of four segments:
- Anterior pontomesencephalic segment (S1): from the SCA ori...