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Cranial Nerve Disorders

Last Updated: September 27, 2018

Table 1: Anosmia
Differential list for anosmia
Neoplastic
  • Esthesioneuroepithelioma
  • Olfactory groove meningioma
  • Suprasellar meningioma
  • Frontal lobe glioma
Vascular
  • Subarachnoid hemorrhage
  • ACA aneurysm
  • Sheehan’s syndrome
  • Scleroderma
Infectious
  • Upper respiratory infection (e.g. Influenza which damages neuroepithelium)
  • Intracranial abscess
  • Meningitis
  • Herpes encephalitis
  • Osteomyelitis (frontal, ethmoid)
  • Syphilis (impact membranes)
Endocrine
  • Diabetes mellitus
Metabolic
  • Hypothyroidism
  • Vitamin deficiency
Toxic
  • Aminoglycosides
  • Amphetamines
  • Cocaine
  • Lead
  • Cadmium
  • Hypercalcemia
  • Heavy smoking
Inflammatory
  • Chronic rhinitis
  • Chronic sinusitis
  • Nasal polyposis
Miscellaneous
  • Traumatic neuropathy (2nd most common cause)
  • Alzheimer’s disease
  • Kallmann syndrome
  • Paget’s disease
  • Chronic atrophic rhinitis
  • Albinism
Table 2: Oculomotor Nerve Palsy
Differential for oculomotor nerve palsy
Neoplastic
  • Meningioma (extra-/intra-orbital)
  • Glioma
  • Pituitary adenoma
  • Orbital hemangioma
  • Carcinomatous meningitis
  • Orbital epidermoid
  • Neurofibroma
  • Orbital lipoma
  • Nasopharyngeal extension
  • Melanoma metastasis to the orbit
  • Other metastasis
Vascular
  • Aneurysm (P-comm, SCA, PCA, ICA, basilar tip)
  • Midbrain infarction (paramedian PCA branches...
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