Last Updated: September 30, 2018
The estimated prevalence of epilepsy in North America is 5 to 10 cases per 1,000 people. It is also estimated that approximately one-third of patients with epilepsy fail to achieve adequate seizure control by means of antiepileptic drugs or are unable to tolerate the side effects required to do so. A large body of evidence indicates that failing to adequately control seizures impairs cognition, decreases overall quality of life, and increases mortality compared with age-matched controls.
Medical intervention is the first step in treating epilepsy. Despite treatment with various antiepileptic drugs, medical therapy fails to achieve seizure freedom in up to one-third of patients. In a subset of patients who do not respond to medical therapy, surgical evaluation is appropriate. Approximately...