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Temporalis Fascia Planes and Dissection

Surgical Correlation

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Temporalis Fascia Planes and Dissection. A, The frontalis muscle and the galea in which the muscle is embedded have been elevated while preserving the full course of the temporal branches of cranial nerve (CN) VII from the stylomastoid foramen to the muscle. The nerves course in the loose areolar tissue on the outer surface of the superficial layer of temporal fascia and the frontal pericranium, and cross the STL to pass under the lateral margin of the frontalis muscle to innervate it from the deep side. Some dark material has been placed under the nerves to highlight their course. B, Lateral view showing the full course of the nerves from the stylomastoid foramen, through the parotid gland, and across the zygomatic arch, superficial layer of temporal fascia, STL, and outer surface of the frontal pericranium to reach the frontalis muscle. C, Enlarged view. There are typically 3 temporal branches of CN VII—anterior, middle, and posterior—that cross the zygomatic arch to innervate the orbicularis, frontalis, and corrugator muscles. D, A window created in the superficial layer of temporal fascia to expose the interfascial fat pad. (Images courtesy of AL Rhoton, Jr.)

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