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Far-Medial Expanded Endonasal Approach to the Inferior Third of the Clivus

Surgical Correlation


Far-medial expanded endonasal approach to the inferior third of the clivus. The transcondylar and transjugular tubercle approaches give acces to lower cranial nerves. The hypoglossal nerve can be identified running through the hypoglossal canal. The glossopharyngeal, vagus, and spinal accessory nerves run with the parapharyngeal ICA. The anterior spinal artery arises from vertebral arteries. (Image courtesy of JC Fernandez-Miranda)