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Ventral Transoral View of Osteology

Surgical Correlation

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Anterior transoral view of osteology. In this open mouth view, one can see the first two cervical vertebrae. The odontoid process (dens) of the axis projects in the midline behind the anterior arch of the atlas. The transverse foramina of the atlas can also be seen. The clivus slopes upward from the anterior border of the foramen magnum. Just anterolateral to the foramen magnum are the hypoglossal canals for the hypoglossal nerves and further laterally is the opening of the jugular foramen for cranial nerves IX, X, and XI and the internal jugular vein. The hard palate consists of the palatine processes of the maxillae housing the maxillary teeth and the horizontal plate of the palatine bone. The mandibular condyles project from the posterior border of the mandible and rest within the mandibular fossae of the temporal bone. Behind the palatine bones project inferiorly the lateral and medial pterygoid plates of the pterygoid process. (Image courtesy of AL Rhoton, Jr.)

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