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Transoral, Transpalatal, and Transmaxillary Approaches to the Clivus and Foramen Magnum

Surgical Correlation

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A, Forced opening of the mouth permits the clivus to be exposed below the palate. B, Anterior view through the open mouth. The soft palate, which extends backward from the hard palate, will block the view of the upper clivus. C, An incision has been outlined in the midline of the soft palate. D, The soft palate has been divided to expose the mucosa lining the lower clivus. E, The pharyngeal mucosa has been opened in the midline and the longus capitis and longus coli have been exposed and the longus capitis reflected laterally. F, The left longus capitis and longus coli have been reflected laterally. (Images courtesy of AL Rhoton, Jr.)

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