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Intradural Exposure of Endoscopic Endonasal Approach

Surgical Correlation

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Endoscopic endonasal approach in the sagittal and coronal planes. Overview of the intradural areas exposed through the endonasal approach to the skull base: the pituitary and cavernous ICA are identified at the sellar and parasellar region; the optic chiasm, olfactory tracts and bulbs, and orbital surface of the frontal lobes are exposed behind the anterior skull base; the basilar artery, abducens nerves and braintem are located in the posterior fossa; the orbital apex, medial and inferior rectus muscles, and the first and second divisions of the trigeminal nerve are identified in the middle fossa. (Image courtesy of JC Fernandez-Miranda)

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