3D Models Related Images

Intradural Exposure of Endoscopic Endonasal Approach

Surgical Correlation


Endoscopic endonasal approach in the sagittal and coronal planes. Overview of the intradural areas exposed through the endonasal approach to the skull base: the pituitary and cavernous ICA are identified at the sellar and parasellar region; the optic chiasm, olfactory tracts and bulbs, and orbital surface of the frontal lobes are exposed behind the anterior skull base; the basilar artery, abducens nerves and braintem are located in the posterior fossa; the orbital apex, medial and inferior rectus muscles, and the first and second divisions of the trigeminal nerve are identified in the middle fossa. (Image courtesy of JC Fernandez-Miranda)