3D Models Related Images

Endoscopic Middle and Lower Transclival Approach Intradural Exposure

Surgical Correlation


Endoscopic endonasal middle and inferior transclival approach, intradural stage. The jugular tubercle has been removed to provide access to the lateral cerebellomedullary cistern and its contents: glossopharyngeal or IX, vagus or X and spinal accessory or XI nerves, posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA), flocculus and choroid plexus at foramen of Luschka. The lower cranial nerves (IX-X-XI) arise from the postolivarysulcus and they are located posterior to the hypoglossal nerve rootlets. (Image courtesy of JC Fernandez-Miranda)