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Language Mapping for Glioma

Figure 1: Cushing’s own illustrations show his passion for cortical electrophysiology. Forester, Penfield, and Boldrey further refined the techniques of cortical stimulation and shaped our understanding of this method. There is some controversy if Cushing had intended to sketch the face of William Osler in the left image.  Large Dominant Frontal Glioma: Awake Mapping Techniques The goal of glioma surgery is to maximize tumor resection while avoiding neurologic morbidity. Other advantages of resection include a decreased risk of sampling error associated with the biopsy procedure, seizure control, improvement of symptoms caused by mass effect, and in the case of low-grade gliomas, a decreased risk of future malignant transformation through cytoreductive surgery.  The extent of resection correlates with time to progression and overall survival.   The greatest risk of tumor recurrence occurs within 2 cm of the tumor margin or contrast-enhanced region seen on magnetic resonance imag...

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